It was found that low energy red laser can reduce blood viscosity effectively by increasing deformability and decreasing aggregation of red blood cells. So far we have known the following a variety of important relevant enzymes that are crucial for laser blood therapy.
Photo-activation of ATP-production-related enzymes
There are a group of hemeproteins forming cytochrome complexes and distributing in cell plasma and mitochondria. They include cytochrome a, a1, b, c and c1 oxidases. Of them, cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c) locates in the inner membrane of mitochondria and plays essential role in electron transport. Cyt c has been studied more than other enzymes. It was observed that red light can strongly spark cyt c activity and increase ATP production That effect may be due to the increase of the production of superoxide anion radical, O2.-, in mitochondria. Increase of O2.- production indicates the increase of ATP synthesis. Good cell functions rely on adequate energy supply. The cells which are in ageing or stressful status often have lower ATP production. Photo-activation can help these cells to restore ATP level and recover cell functions efficiently. Adequate ATP can help red blood cells to reduce volume and maintain deformability.
Photo-activation of Na+-K+-ATPase
Na+-K+-ATPase virtually exists in all mammalian cell membrane. It is a Na+-K+ pump (or sodium-potassium pump) and consumes energy provided by ATP. Potassium concentration is higher and sodium concentration is lower inside normal cells, whereas, sodium concentration is higher and potassium is lower outside cells. The sodium-potassium pump can pump out sodium and take in potassium against their concentration gradients. Therefore it consumes energy. Normal cells have a resting transmembrane potential (-70 mV). When nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, water or some other solutes enter cells, they will be accompanied by Na+ entering and K+ coming out cells. That will break equilibrium of normal resting transmembrane potential and ionic gradient, which will activate Na+-K+-ATPase to pump out Na+ and take in K+ to resume resting membrane potential and ionic gradients. The Na+-K+ pump moves out 3 Na+ and takes in 2 K+ when it consumes each molecule of ATP. Therefore, the functions of Na+-K+-ATPase include:
Therefore, Na+-K+-ATPase is very important in maintaining cell normal functions. As long as cell membrane is in good working condition, the cell will work properly. When cell functions are resumed, it is a fundamental cure for some abnormal conditions. Low level of cellular ATP, inflammation, drugs, or toxins can affect Na+-K+-ATPase activity and may result in cell swollen and reduction of cell functions.
Red laser is able to photo-activate Na+-K+-ATPase, recover deformability of red blood cells and reduce red blood cell aggregation. This, in turn, can reduce blood flow resistance and lower blood pressure.
Photo-activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD)
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant enzyme existing in nearly all living cells and blood. Cell energy metabolism can generate a superoxide anion radical (O2.-). O2.- is a precursor of other reactive oxygen species (H2O2, HO· ). O2.- and H2O2 can also reacts with nitric oxide (NO) to form a toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO−). O2.-, H2O2, HO· and ONOO− are all endogenous, harmful factors that are responsible for inflammation-related cell injury, cell ageing and some diseases Therefore excessive O2.- must be removed in time. SOD can convert O2.- into O2 and H2O2. H2O2 can be further converted into harmless H2O and O2 by catalase or glutathione peroxidase. Without SOD, cell’s life span will be greatly shortened. Therefore, SOD is a very important cell protector to prevent cells from injury induced by endogenous free radicals.
A certain low level energy of red laser can increase SOD activity and hence, reduce free radical injury, delay cell aging and cure some diseases. Therefore, red laser can reduce free radical-induced cell damage including red blood cells and endothelial cells by photo-activating SOD.
Low energy red laser irradiation can increase RNA expression and protein synthesis in mitochondria and also increase DNA synthesis in mitochondria. It can also increase cAMP level in cells, which can increase cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity to modulate cell functions. cAMP is an important cell signal transmitter. Therefore, the low energy red laser can also influence cell functions through cAMP in addition to direct photo-activation.
Briefly, in laser blood therapy, a single wavelength of red light laser can exert many beneficial functions without any harmful effects (Fig.1).
Fig. 1. Illustration of the multiple effects of a single wavelength of red light laser.
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